December 18 2019 0Comment



LED is short meaning for light-emitting diode and as such LEDs work like many other diodes. They are semiconductors which are made more conductive by adding impurities to material. For LEDs, these semiconductors are often gallium arsenide, gallium phosphide or gallium arsenide phosphide. These semiconductors are used to make wafers as thins as 5 microns or even less. Since one micron is one thousandth of a millimetre, that’s pretty tiny.

When electricity is run through these wafers, we get light. With the current, electrons around the atoms get bumped to higher orbitals. As these electrons fall back down into lower orbitals they give off energy in the form of light. The bigger the energy drop the higher the frequency of light that will be given off. In other words, this determines the color of the light. A small drop and the light will be infra-red. A bigger drop will be in the visible spectrum and along with that the color of the light can also be controlled.

With these energy drops determining the color of the light the big question is how to make white light? After all, white light isn’t one color, but the combination of many colors. One way would be to use an RGB LED and mix the red, green, and red colors to make white, but this requires some control of the different LEDs. The other method is to apply layers of phosphor on top of an LED, commonly blue, that shifts the wavelength of the light passing through it. It’s not too different from how a fluorescent light works and is how many high-intensity white LEDs are made.

Rhema Engineering Solutions is a Ghanaian owned private company that specializes in Solar Energy, Security Solutions and LED Lighting for residences, institutions, companies and organizations.

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